Monday, January 09, 2006

Major Internet Backbones

... maybe how often you think about the internet connections such as backbones, infrastructure,... in this topic and later topics I'll show you some of them.
In this topic, I tell you major internet backbones...

* At the first time lets know the meaning of the backbone:
Before reading, you have to know:
DS0 is a 64 kilobits per second link (I called it basic rate).
T1 line is a 1.544 megabits per second link (24 DS0 lines).
T3 line is a 43.232 megabits per second link (28 T1s or ).
OC3 is a 155 megabits per second link (84 T1s).
OC12 is a 622 megabits per second link (4 OC3s).
OC48 is a 2.5 gigabits per seconds link (4 OC12s).
OC192 is a 9.6 gigabits per second link (4 OC48s).

The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the first high-speed backbone in 1987. Called NSFNET, it was a T1 line that connected 170 smaller networks together and operated at 1.544 Mbps (million bits per second). IBM, MCI and Merit worked with NSF to create the backbone and developed a T3 (45 Mbps) backbone the following year.
Backbones are typically fiber optic trunk lines. The trunk line has multiple fiber optic cables combined together to increase the capacity. Fiber optic cables are designated OC for optical carrier, such as OC-3, OC-12 or OC-48. An OC-3 line is capable of transmitting 155 Mbps while an OC-48 can transmit 2,488 Mbps (2.488 Gbps). Compare that to a typical 56K modem transmitting 56,000 bps and you see just how fast a modern backbone is.
Today there are many companies that operate their own high-capacity backbones, and all of them interconnect at various NAPs around the world. In this way, everyone on the Internet, no matter where they are and what company they use, is able to talk to everyone else on the planet. The entire Internet is a gigantic, sprawling agreement between companies to intercommunicate freely.

** Major Internet Backbones (Sorted by "connectivity"):

AS 701 - UUNET/WorldCom/MCI
AS 1239 - Sprint
AS 3561 - Cable & Wireless
USA AS 1 - Genuity (Also known as Level 3)
AS 6461 - AboveNet
AS 7018 - AT&T
AS 209 - Qwest
AS 2914 - Verio
AS 3549 - Global Crossing
AS 6453 - TeleGlobe
AS 702 - UUNET (also first)
AS 2548- Intermedia
AS 6347 - Savvis
AS 1755 - Ebone
AS 4648 - Netgate (Exchange Point: New Zealand)
AS 174 - PSINet (cogent)
AS 5459 - LINX (Exchange Point: London)
AS 8918 - Carrier1 (bankrupt) (netherlands portion)
AS 3300 - Infonet (Their European network)
AS 703 - UUNET/WorldCom/MCI (also first)
AS 3967 - Exodus (now with Cable & Wireless)
AS 8297 - Teleglobe
AS 5673 - Pacific Bell
AS 2828 - Concentric (now with XO)
AS 4000 - Sprint (Also listed at number 2)
AS 4200 - AGIS (telia)
AS7474 - optus (Australia)
AS 4766 - KIX (Exchange Point: Korea)
AS 3786 - DACOM ( map from KIDC)
AS 5519 - XO Communication
AS 286 - EUNET (KPN)

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